Implementing the reverse classroom for any subject requires a lot of work and planning. It is not as easy as going to a class and opening up your notes and lecturing. We will try to show how the reverse classroom instruction can be created for all disciplines, but we will start with a few general principals that support the conclusions raised in part one of this paper.
Generally, the longer the presentation, the more a student will be challenged by cognitive overload. Studies show that breaking up course materials into chunks that are small enough to be assimilated in one study session or one class session will be best for student mastery. So, the shifting of lecture to an online environment cannot be the simple video taping of a one hour classroom lecture. The material covered in a one hour face to face lecture needs to be broken up into pieces that are manageable and the comprehension of the material presented must be assisted by what we will call pre-quizzes. We will start out with the assumption that an effective presentation must be no longer than 15 minutes and preferably closer to 10 minutes and that the presentation must be accompanied by questions that test for understanding. The identification of gaps in understanding, as revealed by the pre-quizzes is crucial to the implementation of the reverse classroom. We will describe the process in detail.
Online Components of the Reverse Classroom
What we require is an effective method of transferring classroom presentations to an online format. Preferably the online format includes audio, video, written and interactive features. Developments in web technology have made it possible to record what occurs on a computer screen and convert that recording into a video that can be hosted by sites like YouTube, TeacherTube or Vimeo. Although videos of a teacher lecturing may be interesting to watch, the content that is being presented may not be easily visible in course that relay on a lot of board work for presenting ideas and solving problems as in math and science classes. In these types of courses, the ability to write on the computer screen to show problem solutions and to present ideas and concepts is essential. Students must be able to easily read what you are writing. See http://www.khanacademy.com for examples of this type of screen casting. Software and hardware tools to accomplish this type of presentation are now easily and cheaply available. Although all courses can benefit from some writing on a computer screen, analogous to what a teacher might write on a chalk board in a face to face classroom, the unique nature of math and science courses make this type of presentation particularly important. Using powerpoint slides to present history lectures, and simply writing in a word processor for teaching writing in English or recording material that requires your responses for a foreign language class are all ways in which screen casting can be used to shift classroom presentational components to online screen casts.
The drawing tablet made by Wacom and other manufacturers is particularly suited for writing free hand on a computer screen and recording it in a screen cast. Camtasia, Screencastomatic.com (free) and others allows anyone to use screen casting software and make an up to 15 minute video. Hosting for the videos with YouTube, TeacherTube, Vimeo allows you to embed or provide links to the video. Using a drawing program like Simple Draw, Xournal or MS Word, you can use the Wacom Tablet to write while the screen casting software will record what you are writing and your voice as you explain what you are writing. A 10 to 15 minute presentaion of a concept with an associated pre-quiz will allow students to view, rewind and replay as often as they need to be able to master the material and show that they have mastery by answering the questions in the pre-quiz.
Google Docs allows the easy building of pre-quizes using forms. The form is the front end of a back end spreadsheet. As students fill in their name and answer the questions of the pre-quiz, the responses go into a spreadsheet which the teacher can view and check each student for mastery. The face to face session of the class can then provide the help needed while students engage in further practice. The pre-quizzes allow students to practice what they are viewing in the screen casts. The pre-quizes should be sufficiently challenging to take the place of a homework assignment. The real homework assignment that may involve many odd or even problems can be done during class. These assignments done during class can be required and are to be passed in at the end of the Face to Face session.
Another component of the reverse classroom is the discussion using essential questions. There is a huge body of information and examples that show how to use essential questions in discussions related to all subjects. Even in math and science discussions can center around problem solutions. In these subjects paper and pencil solutions to problems seem to be the best way to proceed as they are the simplest tools to use and will not impede the flow of the student's thinking process. By posting images of paper and pencil solution and commenting on the solutions by filling in the gaps in the process, Math and science can be involved in meaningful discussions that improve and strengthen learning for the student. A new tool for discussions, VoiceThread, allows students to post a photo or scan of a paper and pencil solution and record a verbal description of the solution using nothing more than the microphone built into a laptop or an inexpensive headset with mic and a cellphone camera to take the photo of the paper and pencil solution. The thinking behind using Voicethreads in math and science that students who explain solutions to problems then to understand them better.
In summary, the components that are required to implement the reverse classroom are:
Written and Oral Discussions
In class practice with required assignments and assessments